Pipe Fittings – Elbow, Reducing Elbow, Miter bend and Returns
Pipe Fittings - Elbow, Reducing Elbow, Miter bend and Returns
Welcome to Hardhat Engineer. I am Varun Patel.
In this video, I am going to teach you about pipe fittings. In part one I will teach you about the elbow, reducing elbow, miter bend, and returns that are 180-degree bends.
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What is pipe fitting? In oil and gas piping, pipe Fittings are Piping component which helps in Changes the direction of the flow such as elbows, tee. Changes the size of the pipe such as reducers, reducing tees. Connect two components together such as couplings and stop the flows such as Caps.
The elbow is used more than any other pipe fittings. It Provides flexibility to change the pipe direction. Elbow mainly available in two standard types 90° and 45°. However, you can manufacture elbow in any other degree or you can cut the standard elbow to any degree as required during the construction.
Elbows are available in two radius types, Short radius (1D) and Long radius (1.5D).
A Long Radius elbow is having the radius equivalent to 1.5 times the Diameter of the pipe and a Short Radius elbow is having the radius equivalent to the Diameter of the pipe.
- Long Radius A=1.5D
- Short Radius A=1D
Ok now tell me which type of elbow you will use if you want to transport fluids to long distances with minimum pressure loss? And piping that has frequent directional changes? Well in both the case long radius elbow is used as pressure loss is much less in long radius than short radius elbow. Short radius elbow is used where space is real constrained and pressure loss is not a problem. When you use short radius elbow in piping you may require to installation larger pump or compressor to compensate pressure loss.
The 90 reducing elbow is designed to change direction as well as reduce the length of flow within a piping system. The reducing elbow eliminates one fitting and reduces the welding by more than one-third. Can you tell me which fitting it elements? Yes, reducer and that is why it reduces 2 cirseam weld joint and reduce the welding by 1/3. Also, the gradual reduction in diameter throughout the arc of the reducing elbow provides lower resistance to flow and reduces the effect of stream turbulence and potential internal erosion. These features prevent sizeable pressure drops in the line.
Miter bends are not standard fittings they are fabricated from pipes. High skill pipe fitter is required to fabricate this type of bends and Usually, they are preferred for size 10” & above because large size elbow is expensive. Use of miter bend is restricted to the water line. Miter bend can be fabricated in 2, 3, & 5 pieces. Generally, fire water line, cooling water in old refinery & petrochemical plant you can see the use miter bend. Nowadays the use of miter bend is limited.
Retuning elbows or pipe bends are used to make an 180º direction change. These bends are also available in short & long pattern similar to the short radius and long radius elbow. Bends are mainly used in heating coil and heat exchanger.
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